अकादमी में उपयोग की जा रही प्रशिक्षण विधिया

Different Training Methods

1-: COACHING

What  it is:

‘Systematically increasing the ability and experience  of the  trainee by giving him/her planning tasks, coupled with continuous appraisal, advice, and counseling, by the trainee’s supervisor’. (Glossary of Training  Terms)

Main  Uses:

Development of knowledge and skills.

Advantages:

The learner may have undivided attention from the trainer in the one-to-one situation. Level and pace of coaching can be quickly adapted. Trainer and learner are likely to have more immediate feedback of results compared with some other methods.

Limitations:

Can be expensive on trainer’s time. Only very small numbers can be dealt with at one time. Success depends very much on the qualities of the trainer.

2-: LECTURE

What  it is:

‘A straight talk of exposition, possibly using visual or other aids, but without group participation other than at the conclusion’.

(Glossary of Training Terms)

Main  Uses:

For transmission of facts and information which may be classified as of ‘interest’ value only and which the learners would not be expected to remember in full.

Advantages:

A large amount of material can be covered in a relatively short time.

A large number of learners can be handled by one lecturer – virtually no limits.  Content and sequence under the lecturer’s complete control.

Limitations:

Lack of learner activity – they are passive with little or no opportunity for participation.

Knowledge/information imparted by talking is no easily memorable.

The lecturer has little or no immediate feedback from the learners.

‘Saturation’ point is reached relatively quickly.

The learner’s attention can be easily distracted.

3-: CASE STUDY METHOD

What  it is:

‘A learning technique in which a real or fictional situation or series of events is presented to trainees for their analysis and consideration of possible solution of problems identified.  Their findings in a real situation can be compared subsequently with what actually occurred.  Case studies are often used in inter-personal industrial relations situations such as disciplinary cases and grievance handling’. (Glossary of Training Terms)

Main  Uses:

Developing Problem solving &analytical skills. Gaining confidence in decision making. Changing/modifying attitudes. Encouraging Team Work

Advantages:

Provides concrete subjects for discussion. Participants’ experiences can be brought into use and shared with others. Provides opportunities for active participation.

Limitations:

Time consuming to produce.

Difficulty in validating when there is no quantifiable solution.

Close relationship to ‘real-life’ may be  difficult to achieve.

Differences between the training situation and the real world may not be recognized.

4-: DISCUSSION METHOD

What  it is:

‘A training technique in which the learning  derives principally from the participants themselves rather than from an instructor’.

Normally recognized to be of three main types:

  1.  Directed discussion
  2.  Developmental discussion
  3.  Problem-solving discussion

Main  Uses:

For problem solving exercises. For forming or moulding attitudes. For stimulating interest and constructive thought. For supplementing other methods.

Advantages:

Learner activity can be high. Interest can be quickly aroused. trainee centered high trainee activity opportunity to exchange ideas, information and opinions

good for problem solving

Limitations:

Time-consuming to obtain anything worthwhile. Has to be extremely well controlled to be of value. To run well, learners must know or have opinions about the topic.

5-: BRAINSTORMING

What  it is:

‘A technique used for finding solutions by means of stimulating ideas. A small group of people with or without conscious knowledge of the subject meet and contribute any suggestion or idea that comes into their heads, no matter how fantastic or impossible it may sound.  All suggestions are encouraged and criticism is not allowed at this stage, although contributors are later invited to explain their ideas. Subsequently all the ideas submitted at the meeting are sifted and assessed’.

Main  Uses:

Problem solving, Consolidating previous learning.

Advantages:

Uses participants’ experience and ideas. Very active participation

Limitations:

Time consuming. High trainer skills required. Some learners may not participate.

6-: GROUP EXERCISES

What  it is:

Group exercises require a small group of learners to undertake an activity together. The content of the activity is not important. What is important is how the group undertook the activity and the results achieved.

Main  Uses:

Develop interactive/interpersonal skills. Team building activities.

Advantages:

Highly participative. Learners are usually highly  motivated

Limitations:

Process skills learning can be obscured by the output of the activity.  High trainer skills are  required to review and help transfer of learning.

Apart from these commonly used methods, there are some other methods are occasionally used. Few of them are-

7-: Fish bone –This is also a type of discussion in which the participants are arranged in fish bone fashion.

8-: Participatory Rural Appraisal

9-: Role play

10-: Ice Breaking-:This method is generally used to fill the distance between the trainer and trainee, and also amongst the trainees. Different games ,energizers can be used for this method.